Attitudes in direction of Muslims seem like significantly detrimental within the Baltic and the Visegrád nations. Crucially, the exact same nations have the bottom estimated Muslim inhabitants in Europe.
Over the previous few years, the Pew Analysis Middle has lined extensively the demography of the European Muslim inhabitants. In November 2017, the report, “Europe’s growing Muslim population”, revealed that the Muslim inhabitants in Europe is ready to extend, independently from new migratory flows. Nonetheless, the extent of the migratory phenomenon retains being a related think about explaining the potential dimension of the longer term Muslim inhabitants. In response to the Pew’s knowledge, as of 2016, some 4,9 % of Europe’s inhabitants may very well be estimated to be Muslim (see Methodology observe, under).
Determine 1 exhibits EU nations in accordance with their share of Muslim inhabitants. Cyprus (25,Four %), Bulgaria (11,1), France (8,8) and Sweden (8,1) high the rating. Quite the opposite, Poland, Slovakia and Lithuania are characterised by a dismissal share of Muslim inhabitants (intently adopted by different Jap and Baltic nations, excluding Portugal).
Apparently, in October 2018, Pew launched a brand new report coping with the attitudes of European countries towards minorities. The report offers as properly knowledge on the attitudes of EU nations’ residents in direction of Muslims. Extra intimately, to seize attitudes, researchers requested interviewees in the event that they “can be keen to just accept Muslims as members of their household” (the query was solely requested to non-Muslim surveyed people).
Combining shares of inhabitants and attitudes
In response to the examine, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden high the rating of nations with a constructive angle in direction of Muslims. Determine Three under, exhibits the outcomes of the inquiry, though the graph shows the proportion of “detrimental attitudes” (as an alternative of constructive ones) on the Y axis. Consequently, nations on the backside are these with constructive attitudes.
As Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovenia weren’t surveyed, in 13 nations out of 24, a majority of the inhabitants shares constructive views in direction of Muslims (confront the info factors under the 50 % mark on the Y axis). Nonetheless, essentially the most attention-grabbing results of the graph issues the mixture of the 2 variables, particularly the share of Muslim inhabitants (X axis) vis à vis the share of detrimental attitudes (Y axis).
To make extra sense of the relation, we grouped the nations into regional clusters calculating the typical values for every. The outcomes are depicted in Determine 3.
Because of this, the Baltic and the Visegrád nations stand out as these with essentially the most detrimental attitudes, and on the identical time, the fewest shares of Muslim inhabitants. As an alternative, Western and Nordic nations, which, on common, function the best percentages of Muslim inhabitants, are additionally these holding largely constructive views.
Within the methodology a part of the report, “Europe’s growing Muslim population”, Pew specifies that spiritual id – i.e. “being Muslim” – is predicated on a “sociological” id measure, quite than a “theological” one. Subsequently, the usual for measuring spiritual id equals a question-item asking “What’s your faith, if any?”. In different phrases, the examine doesn’t keep in mind ranges of adherence to orthodox practices and beliefs. Moreover, Pew states that in about half of the surveyed nations, the statistical census or large- family surveys on which the estimate is predicated upon, comprehend the above-mentioned question-item. Within the remaining instances, estimates are based mostly on an evaluation of different kinds of knowledge, equivalent to inhabitants registers, immigration knowledge and different studies and sources.